Nahlik, Adam. Tkaniny Wsi Wschodnioeuropejskiej X-XIII W. Acta Archaologica Lodziensia, 13. Lodz, 1965.

Title Page


              I.      Microphotographs of wool from barrows:

1.      Gdov, No.721/22;

2.      distr. Kostroma, No.1043/450;

3.      distr. Kalinin, No.673/102;

4.      distr. Mogilev', No.804/28  .                       p. 18

           II.      Weaves of ordinary fabrics:

1.      plain weave 1/1;

2.      twill weave 2/2;

3.      broken zigzag twill 2/2 (herring-bone) ;

4.       diamond twill;

5.       twill weave 1/2;

a.       warp;

b.      weft                                                               p. 30

         III.      Fabrics. in swivel weave (1,2) and weft embroidered (3);

1.      Panovo, barrow 30 distr. Smolensk;

2.      Ujete, barrow 11, , distr. Kalinin;

3.      Ushmary, distr. Moscow, left side and its weave .          .p 37

        IV.      Fabric in swivel weave with woollen weft, embroidered with flax weft: barrow Bolshevo, distr. Moscow, GIM No.42044, op. 446:

1.      right side:

2.      left side                                                             p. 39

           V.      Diagram showing weaves of fabrics from barrows:

1.      Bolshevo (Pl. IV);

2.      region Dorogobuzh       (Pl. VI)  a, b - covered with redbrown woollen weft (a) and with light brown weft (b) in swivel technique;  c - covered with
embroidering plant fibre weft (flax, hemp?); d,  e -  weaves of basic fabric: plain 1/1 (d),  twill 2/1(e).     .                                                after 40

        VI.      Fabric in swivel weave with woollen weft, embroidered with flax weft: barrow in region Dorogobuzh, distr. Smolensk, GIM, No.42796, op. 202/528:

1.      right side;         

2.      left side;

3.      fabric lit up in a special way                                           p. 41

      VII.      Fabric in swivel weave with two woollen wefts, embroidered  with flax weft, barrow Bolshevo, distr. Moscow, GIM No.42044, op. 446:

1.      right side

2.      left side                                                             p. 43

   VIII.      "Open-work" fabrics:

1.      ordinary, barrow Biserovo, distr. Moscow, GIM N o.44738, op. 89/58;

2.      double, pattern, barrow Dobrosele, distr. Kalush, GIM No.25778, op. 234/75

3.      double, pattern, from Novgorod, No. N 55/10189        p. 47

        IX.      Fabrics from the barrow at Dobrosele (PI. VIII 2):       

1.      diagram of the weave

2.      reconstruction of the pattern.                                         p 48

           X.      Latvian “willajne”         

1.      fragment, cemetery of Ludza, GIM No.1437/108;

2.      3. distribution and forms of rings                                                            p. 54

        XI.      Types of Latvian “willajne” after A. E. Zarina:

1.      type A, 11th century cemetery of Kivt, grave 36

2.      type A1, 7th century, cemetery of Nukshino, grave 145

3.      type B, 10th c century, cemetery of Nukshino, grave 94; all from Ludza region                                                                                      p. 56

      XII.      Types of Latvian “willajne” after A.E. Zarina:

1.      type C, 11th century cemetery of Kivt, region Ludza, grave 15

2.      type D, 12th century, cemetery near Lazdini, region Césis, grave 9;

3.      type E, 12th century, cemetery of Ainov, region Césis               p.57

   XIII.      Characteristics of fabrics made on vertical loom

1.      starting border

2.      tubular border;

3.      end of fabric (or its plaited starting border);

4.      loops ending the fabric                                      p. 63

   XIV.      Fabric woven   on vertical loom with a loop ending and a tubular selvedge, Staraya        Ladoga, 7th-8th centuries                                                p. 65

     XV.      Weaving of a tubular border vertical loom:

1.      four successive sheds on vertical loom when weaving fabric in twill weave 2/2 with tubular         selvedge

2.      weave (top), four successive wefts in sheds (bottom) and  four phases of tubular selvedge (bottom right; drafting of shafts and sequence of treading foot treadles refer to horizontal loom) . .                                            p. 67

   XVI.      Elements typical of the production on vertical looms:

1.      fragment of warp with starting border (the division of the warp into two layers is distinct), Tegle, Norway, after M. Hoffmann and R. Traetteberg

2.      setting of shaft loops on the warp of a vertical. Loom, after M. Hoffmann;

3.      warp stretched on vertical loom (at the top is the rod that forms the permanent shed, at bottom, the shaft, after M. Hoffmann .                  p. 69

XVII.      Vertical looms:

1.      11th century drawing showing vertical loom with two beams and the method of warping,  after M Hald;

2.      reconstruction of that loom made by the author;

3.      warp-weighted loom from the Faeroe Islands, 11th century, after O. Olavius;

4.      reconstruction of that loom made by the author p 73

XVIII.      Horizontal looms:

1.      charred fragment of a weaving comb and shafts with warp and a piece of fabric, Male Toropickie Gorodishche, 13th—14th cen­tury;

2.      horizontal loom with slay, shafts, foot treadles and a pit for the treadles, 14th century                                                                  p. 80

   XIX.      Shed-forming devices:

1.      horizontal loom, 13th century;

2.      shed-for­ming device, peculiar to it, with two or four shafts to produce simple weave;

3.      horizontal loom, 14th century;

4.      methods, peculiar to it, of binding shafts with foot treadles to produce twill weave 2/2 or a striped fabric in rib-plain weave                         p. 85

     XX.      Shed-forming devices:

1.      horizontal loom, 14th century;

2.      three ways, peculiar to it, of binding shafts and foot treadles to produce twill and cross weave 2/2 and striped fabric in rib-plain weave;

3.      multi-shaft loom, 15th century;

4.      shed-forming device, with three or six shafts, to produce twill weave 1/2 or 2/1                                                                                     p. 87

Selected Figures:

15. Diagram showing forming of sheds in weaving open-work double fabrics

16. Diagram of the so-called shirt from Reepshold (East Frisian)
  1. Starting borders
  2. end borders
  3. cord border (selvedge?)
  4. weaving faults; after La Baume
17. Diagrma of a garment from Parisselja, region Pärnu-Jaagupi (Estonia), 14th-15th centuries